refers to the final stage of the purchasing process between a seller and their customer. When there are no timeline or qualitative disputes, delivery is the ultimate contractual step in the process engaged between the seller and end customer. is a contractual obligation defined arbitrarily at the time of purchase by the customer. Products are sent directly to the buyer’s address.
Delivery options - including - serve as a major asset for retailers when faced with fierce competition. As such, delivery lead times are a key factor. and its various conditions are the best way to enhance loyalty, and remain practically the only formal contact between the buyer and seller. is therefore a precious weapon when it comes to bettering customer relations. Large sales companies have understood this perfectly, and invest colossal amounts of money to maximise and optimise last-mile services.
The last step to includes the last mile, which is also the most expensive. The only alternative to is delivery to a pick-up point.
Specificities of home delivery
Quite clearly, the last mile has a proportionally higher cost price than the rest of the . Figures in France indicate that it represents about 20% of all traffic and 25% of greenhouse gas emissions (source: Strategic Analysis Committee).
The first miles are always perfectly mastered for large volumes, as logistical operations are always conducted in suitable traffic, network and weather conditions. On the other hand, vehicle changes, human resources, administrative work and legislative constraints have an effect on unit prices - making them gradually climb as the last miles grows closer.
Urban environments require an adapted logistical approach. Smaller trucks are called upon to drive through certain districts, in line with specific legislation. The packages’ weight and volume implies certain procedures.
Each type of delivery has its own specialised logistician. Indeed, a package cannot be delivered to the fourth floor as it can to a detached house in the suburbs.
The creation of Logistic Urban Areas have boosted the number of city centre deliveries, where small private vehicles are usually most frequent.
Furthermore, asking customers to pay for deliveries that will take several days or weeks is now no longer well-perceived, and people will turn to more efficient competitors.
Examples and practical applications
What are the advantages of home delivery?
For consumers, offers the following advantages:
They can save time and gain in everyday comfort as they do not need to travel to pick up items;
Easier delivery for large items;
Quick delivery completed by a specialised transporter;
Real-time delivery follow-up available online or via text message.
Delivery subscription services exist, meaning that customers need not worry about cost price for their purchases. Customers pay for a monthly or yearly subscription, and no longer pay for delivery fees every time. Premium versions of this subscription grant customers other advantages, and enhance loyalty.
Home delivery in figures
85% of e-commerce deliveries are made to the customer’s home (France – 2020);
37% of online purchasers have subscribed to a delivery service (France – 2020);
Growth of over 11.6%/year (2019 vs. 2020 in France) 
Sellers are obligated to provide consumers with a delivery date, prior to signing a bonding contract.
As soon as the consumer is in possession of their item, all risks are transferred.
If the product arrives damaged, the consumer must refuse to sign the delivery slip, or mention any reserves they may have, and refuse acceptance of the goods.
The consumer is entitled to demand that the seller comply with the order, and invoke their legal right to a guarantee, as described in article L. 217-4 of the Consumption Code.