Battery Management System (BMS)

A system for the control and management of accumulator batteries

What is a Battery Management System (BMS) ?


A Battery Management System, or , is an electronic system used to control and manage the charge of an accumulator battery. In French, this is known as "Boîtier d'État de Charge de Batterie (BECB)".

This system is essential for the safety and proper functioning of battery packs, notably when they comprise several connected modules (in parallel or in series). This is the case for batteries used in electric vehicles but ' are also found in smartphones or laptops.

The use of ' became necessary with the arrival of lithium batteries able to cause safety problems in case of failure: for example, explosions and fires, even the release of toxic gases.


The features of a Battery Management System

There are 3 main types of Battery Management System:

· basic ' which protect batteries from overcurrent, power surges and under-voltages ;

· ' with electrical charge balancing functions ;

· the most evolved ' are known as SmartBMS and are used to manage a greater number of parameters, some of which can be communicating (via Bluetooth, notably).

Beyond safety issues, ' can improve the performance of batteries and optimise their operation to guarantee a long life.

Therefore, depending on their design, ' can have a greater or lesser number of features:

· monitoring of the electrical voltage (total or of each cell), the temperature, the charge status or discharge status of the battery, its health, the current available in the battery ;

· calculation of the charge and discharge currents, the energy supplied since the last charge or used since its first use, its operating time since its commissioning, etc.

· protection of the battery against over-currents or over-voltage, overheating, low temperatures, overpressures, etc.

· optimisation of battery capacities through balancing.


Examples and application

' can be integrated in the battery in several ways:

· in a centralised configuration, a single is connected to all the cells ;

· in a distributed configuration, there are as many controllers as there are cells ;

· in a modular configuration, several controllers connected to several cells communicate with each other to manage the entire battery pack.


Battery Management Systems in numbers

In the context of energy decarbonisation linked to the fight against climate change, the market is growing.

· Size of the global market in 2020: 1 .4062 billion US dollars ;

· Market growth (CAGR) of ' estimated for the period 2022 - 2027: 19.50% ;

· Estimated size of the global market by 2028: 5 .9259 billion US dollars.

According to the report Electric Vehicle Battery Management System (EVBMS) Market By Component (Hardware and Software), By Propulsion Type (Fully Electric and Hybrid), By Vehicle Type (Passenger Vehicle and Commercial Vehicle), and By Region Forecast to 2028 published in 02/2022 by Reports And Data



Regulatory framework

· ISO 6469-1:2019 Edition 3.0—Electrically propelled road vehicles—Safety specifications—Part 1: On-board rechargeable energy system (RESS)

· ISO 6469-3:2018, Electrically propelled road vehicles—Safety specifications—Part 3: Electrical safety

Standard NF EN 62 619 of June 2017: Alkaline batteries and other non-acidic electrolyte batteries - Safety requirements for lithium batteries for use in industrial applications